Arthur Peacocke (2001)
Arthur Peacocke, a physical biochemist who pioneered early research into the physical chemistry of DNA, received a Bachelor of Divinity from the University of Birmingham in 1971 and was ordained in the Church of England as a “worker-priest,” in his case, a priest-scientist. His scientific and theological pursuits tangibly merged with the publication of Science and the Christian Experiment (1971), which was awarded the Lecomte du Noüy Prize. In 1973, he became Dean of Clare College, Cambridge, allowing him to pursue his interdisciplinary vocation. He founded the Society of Ordained Scientists in 1986 to further advance the development of the field of science and religion. Among his books are From DNA to DEAN: Reflections and Explorations of a Priest-Scientist, and Paths from Science Towards God: The End of All Our Exploring.
Freeman J. Dyson (2000)
Physicist and mathematician Freeman Dyson is Professor emeritus at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey. His most useful contribution to science was the unification of the three versions of quantum electrodynamics invented by Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga. Dyson’s writings on the meaning of science and its relation to other disciplines, especially religion and ethics, have consistently challenged humankind to reconcile technology and social justice. His books include Disturbing the Universe (1974), Infinite in All Directions (1985), From Eros to Gaia (1988), Imagined Worlds (1995), and The Sun, the Genome and the Internet (1997).
Ian Graeme Barbour (1999)
Ian Barbour is one of the world pioneers in the integration of science and religion. His books and articles are helping to expand the field of theology not only for Christians but also for other faiths. A physicist and former chair of the religion department, Barbour is Winifred and Atherton Bean Professor Emeritus of Science, Technology and Society at Carleton College. Barbour is the author of many books, including Religion in An Age of Science, and Christianity and the Scientist.
Sigmund Sternberg (1998)
Sir Sigmund Sternberg, a Hungarian-born British philanthropist and businessman, has consistently encouraged interfaith dialogue for decades. His behind-the-scenes diplomacy played a critical role in relocating a Catholic convent at Auschwitz in the 1980s. He also has been influential in organizing the first-ever papal visit to a synagogue, advocating the Vatican's recognition of the state of Israel, and opening Vatican war-time files relating to Nazis and Jews. His leadership in promoting better relations between Muslims, Jews, and Christians continue to bring about extraordinary breakthroughs in interfaith dialogue.
Pandurang Shastri Athavale (1997)
In 1954 in the villages around Bombay, nineteen of Athavale's most dedicated co-workers, primarily professionals, began bhaktiferi -- devotional visits to the villages to spread the message of love for God and others. Through bhaktiferi, Athavale and his co-workers developed the practice of swadhyaya, a form of self-study that inspires each individual to recognize an inner God, cultivate an increased self-respect, and abandon immoral behavior. By believing that God also dwells within others, those who pursue self-study can develop a loving relationship with all persons, resulting in a reduction of crime, the removal of social barriers, and an alleviation of poverty, hunger and homelessness.
William R. "Bill" Bright (1996)
In 1951, Bill Bright sold his specialty-foods business and began a person-to-person sharing of New Testament scripture on the campus of the University of California at Los Angeles, calling his movement Campus Crusade for Christ. Beginning with a small cadre of converts, Bright led the organization through enormous growth to become a colossal set of ministries that reach around the globe. Campus Crusade for Christ International currently serves more than 650 university campuses in the United States and 470 overseas. His efforts near the end of his life included calling for worldwide spiritual revival through prayer and fasting.
Paul Davies (1995)
Paul Davies, a theoretical physicist and cosmologist, holds the post of College Professor at Arizona State University. He previously held academic appointments at the Universities of Cambridge, London, Newcastle upon Tyne, and Adelaide, and helped establish the Australian Centre for Astrobiology at Macquaire University in Sydney. His research has been in the fields of quantum gravity, black holes, and early-universe cosmology, and, most recently, in astrobiology on problems concerning the origin of life and the transfer of microorganisms between planets. He is the author of more than 25 books, the latest of which is Cosmic Jackpot: Why Our Universe Is Just Right for Life. Previous well-known titles include The Mind of God, About Time, and How to Build a Time Machine. He has created and presented many television and radio documentaries that bring fundamental topics in science to a wider public.
Michael Novak (1994)
Michael Novak, journalist, university professor, former U.S. ambassador, and currently resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, revealed revolutionary insights into the spiritual foundations of economic and political systems. His groundbreaking book, The Spirit of Democratic Capitalism, and other writings are credited with influencing such diverse personalities as Pope John Paul II, Margaret Thatcher, Lech Walesa, and Vaclav Havel, all of whom have been drawn to his extraordinarily original thought. Besides being a pioneer in the theology of economics, Novak's writings, lectures, and commentaries have also extended the boundaries of religious thinking into aspects of culture rarely associated with spirituality, including ethnicity, sports, poverty, the family, and the moral foundations of democracy and capitalism.
Charles W. Colson (1993)
Charles W. Colson, the former Special Counsel to President Richard Nixon, began Prison Fellowship after serving a sentence in federal prison for Watergate-related crimes. It is now the largest prison outreach program in the world, operating an international network of prison ministries in 60 nations. The organization has made substantial gains in breaking the cycle of crime and recidivism through the work of more than 50,000 volunteers in more than 800 state and federal prisons in the United States, who reach one quarter of a million inmates each year.
Kyung-Chik Han (1992)
Rev. Dr. Kyung-Chik Han was one of the world's most successful Christian evangelists. Founder of Seoul's 60,000-member Young Nak Presbyterian Church, Dr. Han's fervent work for refugees and the poor epitomized the growth of Christianity in Korea. His experience as a survivor of the ravages of war and political oppression made him one of Korea's most respected religious leaders and a symbol of the evangelism that has extended the Presbyterian church to unprecedented numbers in Korea. His church, the world's largest Presbyterian congregation, has founded more than 500 churches in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas, including the 5,000-member Young Nak Presbyterian Church of Los Angeles.
Lord Jakobovits (1991)
Lord Jakobovits, Chief Rabbi of Great Britain and the Commonwealth from 1967 to 1991, spent over half a century as a spiritual leader of steadfast principles and unwavering ethics. Author of the groundbreaking book, Jewish Medical Ethics, he helped found this discipline of thought. Highly regarded for his extraordinary scholarship, his sometimes bold positions -- including opposition to violence and polarization in the Middle East and his advocacy of education and spirituality to promote religion -- extended his moral authority far beyond the Jewish community.
Baba Amte (1990; awarded jointly)
Baba Amte left his comfortable life as a wealthy Hindu lawyer to follow a personal calling, developing modern communities to help those with Hanson's Disease (leprosy) and other so-called untouchables of his native India. By building and funding hospitals, schools, rehabilitation centers, a bank, library, post office, and cooperative shops, his community brings employment, education, health, and other services to citizens long denied dignity and compassion.
L. Charles Birch (1990; awarded jointly)
Dr. L. Charles Birch, Emeritus Professor at University of Sydney, Australia since 1983, has been engaged in new and adventurous reflection on questions of science and faith throughout his career as a biologist-geneticist. He sees modern discoveries about natural science as expanding humankind's understanding of God as designer and creator of the universe and its creatures. He has been credited with the development of a new understanding of the nature and role of God for a scientific age and helping to reconcile the biological and the religious understanding of creation.
Lord MacLeod (1989; awarded jointly)
The Very Reverend Lord MacLeod, founder of the monastic Iona Community, located on an island off the west coast of Scotland, spent his life reviving a prayer-centered spiritual movement that now has more than 100,000 supporters worldwide. This ecumenical community's work to encourage peace in the world and help common men and women through their struggles continues to operate with simplicity, depending on the Scriptures to infuse new meaning to ancient ideals.
Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker (1989; awarded jointly)
Professor Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's work explored the intersection of physics, cosmology, and theology, consistently putting him at the forefront of the reconciliation between religion and natural science. His several key discoveries in modern nuclear physics, along with his application of nuclear physics to astrophysics caused him to begin questioning the estrangement of religion and science and led to his investigation of Christianity's obligation to technology.
Inamullah Khan (1988)
Dr. Inamullah Kahn, founder and former secretary-general of the Modern World Muslim Congress in Karachi, Pakistan, devoted his life to working tirelessly to advance peace among Muslims, Christians, and Jews. This interfaith activism provided important, new opportunities to foster good will and understanding. In particular, he played a crucial role in helping to settle the war between Iran and Iraq and to bring a message of peace to formerly-apartheid South Africa.
Stanley L. Jaki (1987)
Rev. Professor Stanley L. Jaki, a Benedictine monk and professor of astrophysics at Seton Hall University in New Jersey, was a leading thinker in areas at the boundary of science and theology and issues where the two disciplines meet and diverge. His more than two dozen books carefully delineate the importance of differences as well as similarities between science and religion, adding significant, balanced enlightenment to the field.
James McCord (1986)
Rev. Dr. James McCord, Chancellor of the Center of Theological Inquiry in Princeton, New Jersey, and president for 26 years of the Princeton Theological Seminary, spent his professional life investigating the relationship between science and religion through his studies of the nature of reality. His center continues to serve as a scholars' residence that encourages scientific and theological theories to be developed and then published in books that detail the findings.
Alister Hardy (1985)
Sir Alister Hardy, founder of the Sir Alister Hardy Research Centre at Oxford, England, began his career as a marine biologist, but went on to gain prominence for original empirical studies that for the first time used scientific methodology to investigate religious experience. He spent a lifetime seeking evidence of God's centrality to the human condition, in the process gathering massive amounts of information pointing out the key role religious experience plays in humanity.
Michael Bourdeaux (1984)
Rev. Michael Bourdeaux, founder of Keston College in England, spearheaded a laborious, often lonely struggle to examine and explain the systematic destruction of religion in Iron Curtain nations during the Cold War. From his time as an exchange student to Moscow in 1960, he worked to defend the rights of faiths in these countries to worship as they chose. When the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc regimes collapsed, Bourdeaux's efforts for universal religious freedom were embraced by authorities, evidencing the strength of his beliefs.
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (1983)
A living symbol of freedom of thought and conscience, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's struggle for open expression made him one of the world's most respected men. Under the repressive Soviet regimes, he held on to his beliefs and shared his worldview through his powerful writings and devastating critiques of the Soviet Union. His work renewed vitality in the Orthodox tradition of spirituality and evidence profound Christian faith, expressing a spiritual dimension long neglected by most novelists, and delivering a message of the unique and indestructible quality of the soul.
Billy Graham (1982)
When the Rev. Dr. Billy Graham took his message of Christianity into the electronic world of radio and television, he invigorated an entire generation with a simple, yet poignant message of salvation. During his rise as media celebrity, however, he maintained a dignity that continues to draw enormous audiences and enthusiastic support with an interpretation of the Gospel that speaks to the problems and pressures of today.
Cicely Saunders (1981)
As a longtime caregiver, Dame Cicely Saunders spent years close to the dull, agonizing suffering of terminally ill patients as they expressed their physical, psycho-social, and spiritual pain. From this, Saunders moved to found the Hospice and Palliative Care Movement, invoking a scientifically rigorous program combined with a unique social and spiritual awareness. The program continues to develop across cultural borders worldwide.
Ralph Wendell Burhoe (1980)
As founder and former editor of Zygon, Journal of Religion and Science, Prof. Ralph Burhoe pursued a passionate investigation into the differences and similarities of theology and science, becoming one of the world's most informed voices in communicating this evolving research. Zygon has played an unparalleled role in the interdisciplinary pursuit of issues at the boundary of science and religion by offering a common ground for dialogue.
Nikkyo Niwano (1979)
Literally translated, Rissho Kosei-Kai means "establishing the teaching of the true Law in the world, mutual exchange of thought among people of faith, and the perfection of the personality." When Rev. Nikkyo Niwano and Masa Naganuma founded Rissho Kosei-Kai, they set forth on a mission that has blossomed from a handful of adherents into the world's largest Buddhist lay group of more than five million people. Niwano was also the founder of the World Conference of Religion and Peace.
Thomas F. Torrance (1978)
Through his intense scrutiny of the relationship between science and religion, Professor Thomas Torrance, former Moderator of the Church of Scotland, became one of the first religious thinkers to win the respect of both theologians and scientists. His revelations on the rationality of the universe attempt to evidence God through scientific reasoning.
Chiara Lubich (1977)
Unhappy with the limitations of the cloistered existence for women dedicated to becoming Catholic nuns, Chiara Lubich founded and developed Italy's Focolare Movement as an alternative. Her community in Trent, Italy, dedicated itself to serving the poor. Soon, it expanded to include men and married people. It then spread to other Italian cities, followed by Focolare settlements in Belgium, Germany, France, the United States, Japan, and Hong Kong. She underscored this legacy with her longtime efforts to heal the theological breach between Catholics and Protestants.
Leon Joseph Cardinal Suenens (1976)
Cardinal Suenens, Archbishop of Malines-Brussels, Belgium, was a pioneer in the research and discourse of the Charismatic Renewal Movement. As the movement gained popularity in the early 1970s, many worried what effect this ancient, Biblical phenomenon would have on modern Christianity. The Cardinal's enlightened discourse on the movement provided guidance and reassurance, eliminating misunderstanding and offering thoughtful insight to followers and observers alike.
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1975)
Throughout his life, Sir Sarvepalli - President of India from 1962 to 1967 - served as a voice of peace and justice. An Oxford Professor of Eastern Religions and Ethics, he consistently advocated non-aggression in India's long-simmering conflicts with neighbor Pakistan, maintaining a defensive military posture as well as working to end political corruption in his nation. His lucid writings underscored his country's religious heritage and presented it in a way that made it accessible to all. He also sought to convey a universal reality of God that embraced love and wisdom for all people, regardless of race or religious belief.
Brother Roger (1974)
When the Nazis occupied France during World War II, Brother Roger, founder and prior (director) of the Taizé Community in France, harbored Jewish refugees. It was typical of Brother Roger's long history of helping the less fortunate. After the war, when he established the religious brotherhood known as the Taizé Community, he initiated efforts to aide orphans in the region surrounding the community. This led to the founding of the Council of Youth, and then the Intercontinental Meetings of Young Adults, which annually bring tens of thousands of young adults from throughout the world to pray and reflect in Taizé.
Mother Teresa (1973)
Six years before Mother Teresa, founder of India's Missionaries of Charity, received the Nobel Peace Prize, she was recognized by the Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion for her extraordinary efforts to help the homeless and neglected children of Calcutta. Her heroic work not only affected real change among those she served, but inspired millions of others around the world.